Journal Basic Info
- Prostate Cancer
- Targeted Therapy
- Hormone Therapy
- Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy
- Kidney Cancer
- Lung Cancers
Citation: Clin Oncol. 2023;8(1):2003.DOI: 10.25107/2474-1663.2003
Immunohistochemistry Biomarkers in Bladder Cancer: The Old and the New Immunohistochemistry Markers in Bladder Cancer
Buzogany VHN, Kawasaki JAI, da Silva IM, Serpeloni JM and Guembarovski RL
Department of General Biology, Laboratory of Mutagenesis and Oncogenetics, State University of Londrina, Brazil
Introduction: Bladder Cancer (BC) is split into subgroups and is primarily caused by environmental causes. Pathological classification can determine prognosis and clinical management. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an inexpensive technique that reveals specimens’ important clinical information. Biomarkers are required to improve IHC, and combinations are currently in clinical use. We reviewed the main markers in use and emerging ones that may aid in BC management. Methodology: A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE and PubMed databases from January 2017 to August 2022. Biomarkers chosen were cited three or more times. Results: Out of 116 publications, 93 articles had their markers listed. Cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), 14 (CK14), and 20 (CK20), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), tumor protein p53 (p53), marker of proliferation Ki-67 (Ki-67), and Uroplakin II (UPII) were discussed as markers in clinical use. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER-2), Programmed Cell Death 1 receptor (PD-1) and Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 (PDL-1), E-cadherin, vimentin, and Sex-Determining Region Y-box 2 (SOX2) were considered novel biomarkers. Conclusion: Major markers in clinical use require additional research to better understand their applicability to BC subtyping. Novel markers show promising results since they can be used to evaluate the need for targeted therapy.
Clinical management; Immunostaining; Bladder neoplasia
Cite the Article:
Buzogany VHN, Kawasaki JAI, da Silva IM, Serpeloni JM, Guembarovski RL. Immunohistochemistry Biomarkers in Bladder Cancer: The Old and the New Immunohistochemistry Markers in Bladder Cancer. Clin Oncol. 2023;8:2003..