Clin Oncol | Volume 6, Issue 1 | Research Article | Open Access

Evolution, Morphological and Clinical Characteristics of Skin Cancers in Albinos Patients in Douala

Dina Bell Esther HM*, Maïson Mayeh Anne Marthe, Nganwa Kembaou Grâce, Mouelle Mbassi W, Ananga Noah Sidonie, Atenguena OE, Sango AJ, Meka’ah Mapenya R, Esson Mapoko BS, Ntama Ambroise, Eloundou Albertine, Ateba Gilbert R, Eloundou Albertine, Tayou T Rachel, Fonkwa Célestin, Engbang Ndamba JP, Mouelle Sone A, Essomba Biwole M and Eboumbou
Moukoko EC*

Department of Medicine and Pharmaceuticals Sciences of the University of Douala, Cameroon

*Correspondance to: Dina Bell Esther HM 

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Abstract

Introduction: The risks of developing skin cancer and other skin conditions are extremely high in people with albinism and studies estimate that most of these people die from skin cancer between the ages of 30 to 40 years. In Sub-Saharan Africa, this genetic skin condition is 4 to 5 times superior (partly due to endogamy) to what we observe in the rest of the world and the lack of information on skin cancers within this population group does not permit to evaluate the gravity of skin condition. The objective of our work is to conduct a study analyzing the epidemiology, clinical aspects and evolution of skin cancer in albino in patients in the city of Douala. Methodology: It was a retrospective, transverse and analytical multicentric study conducted in 3 health centers in the city of Douala (Douala General Hospital, Laquintinie Hospital, Douala, and Bonassama District Hospital) over a period of 10 years (2010-2019). All the medical files of albino patients who presented with skin cancer histologically confirmed were gathered consecutively. Data on socio-demographic, clinical, pathology, treatment types and therapeutic response were analyzed with the help of the SPSS software version 20.0.
Results: A total of 59 albino patient medical files were analyzed. The average age at diagnosis was 35.37 (min-max: 15 to 75) years. Malignant tumors were mainly distributed into basal cell carcinoma (28; 50.2%) and squamous cell carcinoma (26; 44.1%). The majority (28; 47.5%) of the patients presented tumors which were larger than 5 cm and the tumor lesion was unique in 62.7%
of cases, a clinical lymph node invasion was found in 16.9% of patients and 6.8% amongst them presented with distant metastases. The malignant lesions were mainly located on the face (62.7%) and the histoprognostic factors found were the Breslow index ≥ 4 mm (59.3%) and the Clark level ≥ (29.2%). Radiotherapy (81.3%) and surgery (29.2%) were the most used therapeutic methods. A bad observance was found in 20.8% of the patients. 79.2% of the patients either had a complete
or partial therapeutic response, 20.8% were non respondent and 18.7% presented local recurrence after an average time of treatment of 22.4 months. The histological type “squamous cell carcinoma” (OR=1.2; IC 95% 1.9 to 152.7; p-value =0.01), the stage of the tumor (OR=11; IC 95% 1.78 to 67.9; p-value =0.03), Clark’s level ≥ 4 (OR=19.5; IC 95% 2.2 to 171.8; p-value =0.007) and the non-respect of the treatment (OR=27.2; IC 95% 4.5 to 16.7; p-value =0.001) were the factors that significantly influenced the variable response to treatment.
Conclusion: Skin cancer in albinos population develops mainly on body parts exposed to UV radiations from the sun and in most cases is diagnosed at stage 2 of its evolution. A predominance of the histologic type basal cell carcinoma was observed and locoregional cancer treatment was found to be the main therapeutic arms with objective responses although they don’t protect albino patients from a new skin cancer.

Keywords:

Albinism; Skin cancer; Cameroun; Treatment

Citation:

Dina Bell Esther HM, Anne Marthe MM, Grâce NK, Mouelle Mbassi W, Sidonie AN, Atenguena OE, et al. Evolution, Morphological and Clinical Characteristics of Skin Cancers in Albinos Patients in Douala. Clin Oncol. 2021;6:1788..

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